Posts Tagged ‘Branstad tax policy’

Tax Roundup, 2/23/16: Governor Branstad reverses stand, now supports Section 179 and other extenders.

Tuesday, February 23rd, 2016 by Joe Kristan

coupling20160213Found money. Governor Branstad started out this legislative session saying the state couldn’t afford the $500,000 Section 179 deduction ever again. He also said the state couldn’t afford to couple to any other 2015 federal tax “extenders.”

Never mind.

The Governor’s office confirmed yesterday that it has decided to support the House-passed coupling bill, HF 2092. The House bill conforms to all 2015 federal extenders, including a permanent $500,000 Section 179 deduction. The Section 179 deduction allows taxpayers to deduct in the year of purchase equipment costs that would otherwise be capitalized and deducted over a period of years through depreciation.

The fate of the extender bill now is in the hands of Senate Majority Leader Gronstal, who controls which bills can come to a vote in the Democrat-controlled chamber. Sen. Gronstal and chief Senate taxwriter Joe Bolckom have announced their support for the Governor’s now-abandoned anti-coupling position. That means they now have a bargaining chip. From O. Kay Henderson:

Senator Mike Gronstal of Council Bluffs, the top Democrat in the legislature, said Senate Democrats are willing to pass these tax cuts, if Republicans are willing to adjust tax policy elsewhere. Gronstal suggested doing away with the $40 million tax break the Branstad Administration unilaterally gave manufacturers.

So now it’s a hostage negotiation.

The Governor’s office hasn’t said where he found the funding for the extenders on his road to Damascus, reports The Des Moines Register:

Spokesman Ben Hammes said in an email Monday that the governor now supports the bill, “given we can still fund the budget priorities of Iowans.” Hammes did not respond to direct questions about how Branstad would calculate the budget differently without funding concerns.

20151118-1I like to think that the Governor’s budget math was altered by a rebellion of his partisans in the General Assembly. Every Republican who voted on the House bill voted against the Governor’s position, and their minority contingent in the Senate would likely do the same thing.

While Section 179 is the biggest revenue item in the extender package, there are a number of other 2015 tax breaks at stake, including:

Exclusion for IRA contributions to charity
Exclusion of gain from qualified small business stock
Basis adjustment for S corporation charitable contributions
Built-in gain tax five-year recognition period
Educator expense deduction
Exclusion of home mortgage debt forgiveness
Qualified tuition deduction
Conservation easement deductions
Deduction for food inventory contributions

The Department of Revenue has warned taxpayers that they have no authority to claim these breaks until the legislature acts. The Department has so far provided no guidance so far on how to report some of these items, such as the exclusion for IRA charitable distributions.

I think the prospects for eventual Senate passage, which appeared bleak as recently as Friday, now are favorable. House Democrats also voted in favor of the House bill, 26-14. There is no reason to believe Senate Democrats feel differently. So while Sen. Gronstal can be expected to extract concessions, probably in spending priorities, he probably is under some pressure from his own caucus to move the bill. I don’t expect the Governor to surrender the manufacturing sales tax exclusion in any deal.

If the Governor and the legislature need to find some revenue to help make it up, I have a handy list of revenue ideas for them.

Related: Prior Tax Update Coverage.

 

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TaxGrrrl, Presidential Campaign Spending & That Checkbox On Your Tax Return, “In 2007, less than 10% of taxpayers checked the box and in 2013, only about 6% of taxpayers checked the box.”

Robert Wood, Dear IRS: Like Apple And Google, I’m Offshore For Taxes. Moving money offshore for taxes isn’t very practical, despite what some people who want to harass people with non-U.S. holdings even more seem to think.

Keith Fogg, Calculating Interest When the IRS Makes a Restitution Based Assessment (Procedurally Taxing)

Peter Reilly, IRS Rules Bingo Is For Charities Not A Charity In Itself. “Somehow I had managed to get through over 35 years of tax practice without realizing a portion of the Internal Revenue Code is dedicated to bingo –  Section 513(f) – Certain bingo games.”

Jason Dinesen, Glossary: Balance Sheet. “A balance sheet is a summary of a business’s assets, liabilities and equity.”

Kay Bell, 9 states considering gasoline tax hikes

Jack Townsend, NPR Planet Money Podcast on a Tax Protestor. “The show goes through basic tax and criminal law related to tax protestors / deniers.”

Paul Neiffer, If You Don’t Pay Income Taxes, You Lose the Farm! “It is almost always best to pay your taxes when they are due; otherwise you may end up losing the farm, just like Mr. Sanders.”

 

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TaxProf, The IRS Scandal, Day 1020. IRS continues to hold up Tea Party exemption applications. 1020 days later.

Scott Greenberg, Who Itemizes Deductions? (Tax Policy Blog). “When it comes to households with incomes over $75,000, a significant majority itemizes deductions:”

Jeremy Scott, A ‘Brexit’ Would Mean More if Labour Were In Power (Tax Analysts Blog). “It’s hard to know exactly what a post-exit United Kingdom would look like because neither political party has spelled out what leaving the EU would mean. But there would probably be much more continuity on the tax side than in other important financial areas — that is, unless the Conservative government fell as a result of the referendum and Labour took its place.”

Renu ZaretskyA Budget, Carbon, Fuel, the Environment… and a Revolt. Today’s TaxVox headline roundup covers a putative House GOP budget deal, carbon taxes, and gas tax hikes by the states.

 

Caleb Newquist, A Short List of Things Donald Trump Has Said About Releasing His Tax Returns (Going Concern). The list doesn’t include anything about, “they will be awesome,” but “they will be very good.”

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Tax Roundup, 2/22/16: DuPont spurns Iowa, as tax rates would predict. And: What Sec. 179 decoupling will cost Iowa farmers.

Monday, February 22nd, 2016 by Joe Kristan

20160222-1Taxes aren’t everything, but they are a thing. With the merger of DuPont and Dow, Iowa hoped the headquarters of the merged company would be in Central Iowa, home of the big DuPont Pioneer seed operation. It didn’t work out that way. It did work out the way you would think it would, though, if you looked only at tax rates.

First, O. Kay Henderson brings us up to date:

DuPont bought Iowa-based Pioneer Hi-bred International in 1999. Now, as the merger of chemical giants DuPont and Dow continues, company executives have decided the corporate headquarters will be in Wilmington, Delaware.

Iowa officials had offered the company millions if it had picked Johnston, where DuPont Pioneer has been based.

An agricultural unit of the newly-merged company will remain in Johnston. State officials are giving the company $14 million in research activities tax credits and a two million dollar forgiveable loan. It appears up to 500 people will work in the research facilities. More than 2600 people currently work at DuPont Pioneer in Johnston.

In short, the corporate headquarters will be in Delaware, but the company will continue to do seed research here, and collect taxpayer money too. That’s precisely the result one would anticipate based on The Tax Foundation’s Location Matters report on effective state taxes on different activities. The key numbers in choosing between Delaware and Iowa:

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Iowa has one of the worst tax structures for corporate headquarters. Iowa’s 20.4% effective rate on a “mature” corporate headquarters is half-again higher than the rate in Delaware. Iowa’s highest-in-the-nation 12% corporate tax rate has something to do with that, as does its bad habit of subjecting business inputs to sales tax.

Because Iowa subsidizes research activities generously through the refundable research activities credit, its taxes on R&D facilities are significantly lower.

I don’t believe that taxes are the only thing corporations look at in location decisions, but to say they don’t matter defies basic economics and common sense. If you think taxing cigarettes and soda pop affects individual choices, it’s weird to say that taxing corporate headquarters doesn’t affect corporate choices.

20120906-1The DuPont decision is the natural consequence of Iowa’s policy of paying to lure and subsidize new companies, using high taxes from existing businesses. It’s like a guy bringing his wife’s purse to the tavern to buy drinks for the girls. The girls may take his money, but they realize he’ll do the same thing to them that he’s doing to his wife, so the smart ones aren’t going home with him. And any girls he “wins” aren’t likely to be great prizes.

Some of the politicians are figuring this out: Senate GOP Leader says DuPont Pioneer move shows need to eliminate income tax (O. Kay Henderson, again):

Bill Dix of Shell Rock, the Republican leader in the Iowa Senate, suggests this should be a wake-up call for state policymakers.

“Really shines a beacon on the fact that we are a very high-tax state,” Dix says, “one of the highest taxing states in the country.”

The State of Iowa is providing the company $14 million in research tax credits for the retention of up to 500 high-paying “R-and-D” jobs in Johnston. Dix says this corporate decision shows it’s time for a discussion of eliminating the state income tax.

“We tend to have had a policy of looking at what we can do to pick winners and losers and bring certain industries to our state and to some degree that has been successful,” Dix says. “…The states that are growing the fastest are the states that recognize that an income tax is a tax on productivity, hard-work, investment.”

Exactly. Unfortunately, the Governor and his unlikely Democratic allies in the state Senate are doubling down on their commitment to fund targeted tax breaks with high taxes on existing businesses. They are surprising Iowa businesses with a 2015 tax increase by refusing to adopt the increased Federal $500,000 Section 179 deduction and other federal tax breaks renewed in December.

Related: 

Corporate giveaways hurt Iowa (Steve Corbin). While I share his feelings about Iowa’s economic development bureaucracy, they don’t control most research credits.

Taxpayers May Lose Deductions Due to Legislative Inaction (Public News Service)

 

Paul Neiffer, How Much Will Farmers Pay to Iowa For Low Section 179:

Therefore, we would estimate that not coupling with federal Section 179 will cost Iowa Farmers between $40 and $75 million in 2015.  Since Iowa says this will be a permanent non-coupling, Iowa Farmers will face similar costs in the future (although it may get smaller each year due to increased depreciation deductions on amounts not allowed for Section 179).

I’m sure they’ll feel better about that when they think of the $14 million going to DuPont.

 

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Institute for Justice, Victory Over the IRS: IRS Returns N.C. Man’s Entire Life Savings After Seizing It Through Civil Forfeiture. Good. But why did he have to fight so hard when the IRS never said that he had cheated on his taxes?

Rose Heaphy, Internal Revenue Service scam haunts Des Moines woman (KCCI.com). If the caller says he’s from the IRS, he isn’t.

Kay Bell, Driving down your tax bill with auto-related deductions

Jason Dinesen, How is the Iowa Trust Fund Tax Credit Calculated?

Jim Maule, Yes, Damages for Emotional Distress Are Gross Income. “It is time for the distinction to be eliminated, but until and unless that happens, taxpayers are caught by it and must file their returns in compliance with what section 104 provides.”

Kenneth Weil, Will Bankruptcy Get Your Passport Back? (Procedurally Taxing).

Peter Reilly, Should enQ Get To Sell Spots In IRS Phone Queue? “Long wait times on calls to the IRS are nothing new.  But now there is something you can do about it – maybe.  Only it will cost you.  And the whole notion has me angry.” Weird and fascinating.

TaxGrrrl, Fraud Allegations At Liberty Tax Franchises Raise Questions

Russ Fox, Where I Became the “Messenger of Doom” (My Final Comments on Turf Rebates). Nice work if you can get it.

Robert WoodCrazy Sounding Tax Deductions That IRS Says Are Legit. “Cosmetic surgery costs are usually non-deductible, but an exotic dancer named Chesty Love tested this rule.”

 

TaxProf, The IRS Scandal, Day 1017Day 1018Day 1019. I’m featured on Day 1016, and Peter Reilly is spotlighted on Day 1018.

Alan Cole, Which Places Benefit Most from State and Local Tax Deductions? ( Tax Policy Blog). It has a wonderful map where you can find the answer county by county:

 

Map by Tax Foundation.

Len Burman, The GOP Proposed Tax Cuts Would be Unprecedented (updated) (TaxVox)

Career Corner. Bonus Watch ’16: Underachievers. (Caleb Newquist, Going Concern). “Good news for the lion’s share of you who are unexceptional: you’re getting paid!”

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Tax Roundup, 2/19/16: Sen. Bolkcom says Iowa coupling won’t happen. And: An expat writes the First Lady.

Friday, February 19th, 2016 by Joe Kristan

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Accounting Today visitors: Click here for the Presidents Day post.

The Fix is in. Small businesses fighting to retain the full $500,000 Section 179 deduction in Iowa got more bad news yesterday. Senator Joe Bolckom, Chairman of the Iowa Senate Ways and Means Committee, yesterday issued a statement saying it won’t happen:

Statement by Sen. Joe Bolkcom
Chair of the Senate’s Ways & Means Committee

“Based on a recommendation from Governor Terry Branstad and David Roederer, Director of the Iowa Department of Management, the Iowa Senate will not couple Iowa’s tax law with the federal changes for tax year 2015.

“We simply cannot afford to couple with federal changes this year and responsibly balance the state budget.”

I don’t recall Democratic Sen. Bolckom ever being so eager to accept Republican Governor Branstad’s recommendations. It appears that the fix is in. You might recall that the House passed a broad “coupling” bill overwhelmingly last month. I suspect the Senate would also, if it got a chance. Arrangements are apparently in place to ensure that vote never happens.

The Governor proposes (SSB 3107) to follow Congress only with respect to the research credit. Like Section 179 and the other provisions that the Governor proposes to not couple with, the research credit had expired at the end of 2014. Iowa law defines qualified research eligible for the credit with respect to the federal definition.  There may be no such thing as qualified research, and no research credit, for Iowa without retroactive coupling.

capitol burning 10904This means the Governor is proposing to continue big cash subsidies to some of Iowa’s largest corporations with retroactive coupling to the federal research credit renewal, while increasing taxes on Main Street taxpayers by not coupling the the Section 179 renewal.

The Des Moines Register reports on the controversy in today’s edition:

Sen. Randy Feenstra, R-Hull, criticized Senate Democrats on Thursday, saying they have failed Iowa farmers and small-business owners by choosing not to couple state law with federal tax depreciation changes. That will cost Iowans millions of dollars in additional taxes, he said.

“This is shameful,” Feenstra said. “This affects every small business and farmer in this state. Senate Democrats failing to move this bill will create significant hardships for many Iowans who anticipated we would pass this coupling legislation like we have in past years.”

The Register article closes:

Ben Hammes, Branstad’s spokesman, said late Thursday that the governor is working with the House and Senate to resolve their differences.

As the Senate and the Governor seem to be on the same side, resolution may be elusive.

The Department of Revenue has not issued guidance on how to deal on 2015 filings with non-coupled provisions, which include:

Exclusion for IRA contributions to charity
Exclusion of gain from qualified small business stock
Basis adjustment for S corporation charitable contributions
Built-in gain tax five-year recognition period
Educator expense deduction
Exclusion of home mortgage debt forgiveness
Qualified tuition deduction
Conservation easement deductions
Deduction for food inventory contributions

What to do? While efforts continue to prevent the unexpected tax increase caused by the Governor’s decision, that’s not the way to bet. If you have a big refund coming, or if you are a farmer who must file by March 1, file assuming that coupling won’t happen. But otherwise it may wise to wait for further guidance, especially for issues where the proper Iowa non-coupled treatment isn’t entirely clear — such as for IRA charitable distributions. And who knows – maybe the legislature will change its mind yet.

Related: Paul Neiffer, Why Won’t Iowa Couple Section 179?!

 

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Robert Wood, Dear Mrs. Obama, Why I Gave Up My U.S. Citizenship:

I have lived abroad most of my life. This is my 46th year in Canada. I married Canadian, my kids are Canadian, not American, I have worked my entire life in Canada. I invest here, and will retire here. I am Canadian, but as you are likely aware, giving up that USA brand is not easy. I have many relatives living in the 50. I used to love to visit them. At the moment, I couldn’t care less if I ever cross that border again.

This brings me to my main reason for handing in my passport: you are still taxing me.

Mrs. Obama couldn’t care less.

Kay Bell, IRS issues an extra tax phishing alert on the heels of its annual Dirty Dozen tax scams list

TaxGrrrl, IRS Issues ‘Dirty Dozen’ List Of Tax Schemes & Scams For 2016

Jack Townsend, IRS Issues Publication Warning of Abusive Tax Shelters and Scams

Keith Fogg, Trustee Personally Liable Based on Application of Insolvency Statute (Procedurally Taxing). “It can trace its roots back further into English common law and the statement ‘the King’s debtor dying, the King comes first.'”

 

Joseph Henchman, Letter to IRS Commissioner Re IRS Website Data Vulnerability

Howard Gleckman, How The GOP Candidate’s Tax Plans Stack Up Against One Another (TaxVox)

Jeremy Scott, Obama’s Oil Barrel Tax Would Be Extremely Regressive (Tax Analysts Blog)

TaxProf, The IRS Scandal, Day 1016

Robert Goulder, Revenue Losses From Profit Shifting: The Numbers Tell a Story (Tax Analysts Blog)

 

Career Corner: L’Affaire Denim: Accounting Firm Dress Code Debates Span Borders, Decades (Jim Peterson, Going Concern).

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Tax Roundup, 1/29/16: Iowa House passes $500,000 Section 179, but prospects bleak in Senate. And: Iowa may give guy a break.

Friday, January 29th, 2016 by Joe Kristan

Accounting Today visitors: Click here to go directly to the newsletter link on cheaper returns.

coupling20160129Accelerating to a stop. When a household is short of cash, the family usually spends less. Iowa has a different approach. They pick your pocket.

The Iowa House of Representatives yesterday voted 82-14 to retroactively couple with all of the 2015 federal tax law changes except bonus depreciation (HF 2092, formerly HSB 535). This would allow Iowa businesses to deduct up to $500,000 in annual purchases of otherwise-depreciable fixed assets under Section 179. Governor Branstad’s budget would limit the deduction to $25,000 — an unexpected departure from Iowa law for the past several years and a significant tax increase.

You would think that an overwhelming bipartisan vote in favor of the $500,000 version would foreshadow quick passage by the Senate. Alas, no.

I talked to some legislators yesterday when I participated in the Iowa Society of CPAs annual Day on the Hill. It appears that Governor Branstad and Senate Majority Leader Gronstal have a little bipartisan deal of their own to kill Section 179 coupling.

That’s not how Sen. Gronstal explains it. From the Quad City Times:

Senate Majority Leader Mike Gronstal, D-Council Bluffs, said his majority caucus would consider what the House passed, but he expressed doubt about moving ahead with a concept at variance with the governor given a similar course of action last session for education funded ended with a gubernatorial veto.

“I don’t like doing things that I know will get a certain veto,” Gronstal said. “That doesn’t seem to me to make a lot of sense. The governor doesn’t have this in his budget.”

I came away understanding that the voice of the majority caucus is really the voice of Sen. Gronstal, and that Section 179 coupling will never come up for a vote in the Senate. I assume it is because both the Governor and the Majority Leader want the money for their own priorities: more cronyist tax credits for Gov. Branstad, and more spending for Sen. Gronstal.

That’s a crummy deal for the thousands of small businesses that suddenly will see a big unanticipated tax increase. It also seems like a deal that would be vulnerable to an insiders vs. Main Street challenge. The tax credits that the Governor wants to fund go to a narrow set of taxpayers. For example, in 2014 $42.1 million of refundable research credits went to 16 big taxpayers. That’s almost enough to pay for half of Section 179 coupling $90 million cost by itself.

Here is the complete menu of incentive and economic development tax credits in the Governor’s budget:

Iowa credits fy 2017

The refundable sales tax credit goes largely to the big data center companies Facebook, Microsoft and Google. The Enterprise Zone Housing credit and High Quality Jobs credits are big company credits that you have to through the economic development bureaucracy to cash in on. The rest of the credits are mostly for favored industries who get breaks unavailable to the much larger universe of other businesses that have to pay full freight.

It might still be possible to get the Governor and/or the Majority leader to see things differently. That will require taxpayers and practitioners to convince their legislators that small businesses and farmers shouldn’t have to stand in line behind insiders.

It’s not clear to me what form the extension will take under the Governor’s program. I was unable to confirm whether the Senate will skip 2015 conformity entirely, as outlined in Sen. Anderson’s newsletter. I have inquiries in.

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Des Moines Register, Iowa agrees to review man’s $5,000 tax refund request. Some good news in the story we mentioned yesterday of the retired maintenance man who inadvertently conceded to a $5,000 liability he didn’t owe.

 

It’s serious. You know tax season is truly underway when Robert D. Flach posts his last Buzz roundup before disappearing into his hive to make his artisanal hand-crafted 1040s. Im starting to think Robert isn’t Donald Trump’s biggest fan.

TaxGrrrl live-blogged the GOP debate last night. I just did a drive-by, myself. Literally; I drove past the venue on my way home last night. No, I didn’t have it on the radio.

Robert Wood, What To Do If IRS Form 1099 Reports More Than You Received

Peter Reilly, Tax Foundation Analysis Of Sanders Plan Only Shows Downside. On the plus side, you could worry less about your investments, as you wouldn’t have as many.

Jason Dinesen, Having Negative Taxable Income Doesn’t Mean the Government Pays You Extra

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Scott Greenberg, The Sanders Tax Plan Would Make the U.S. Tax Rate on Capital Gains the Highest in the Developed World (Tax Policy Blog).

Renu Zaretsky, No Trump, No Problem. The TaxVox headline roundup today covers Google’s tax travails, “tampon taxes,” and candidate tax plans.

TaxProf, The IRS Scandal, Day 995

News from the Profession. Life at EY Involves Food, Technical Difficulties (Caleb Newquist, Going Concern).

 

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Tax Roundup, 1/28/16: Iowa Governor reportedly opposes 2015 coupling for anything. And: Ethanol execs accused of payroll tax crimes.

Thursday, January 28th, 2016 by Joe Kristan


couplingNo 2015 coupling at all? 
I had been under the impression that Governor Branstad’s budget proposal would not couple Iowa’s tax law for the $500,000 Section 179 limit or bonus depreciation, but would couple otherwise. A newsletter from Northwest Iowa Senate Republican Bill Anderson says I was mistaken:

Last week we learned Governor Branstad’s budget supports updating Iowa tax law to conform with changes in the Internal Revenue Code that resulted from federal legislation enacted during 2015. With three significant exceptions:

1. No tax year 2015 coupling. Meaning most of the changes are effective for federal tax purposes beginning in tax year 2015, the bill will not incorporate recent federal changes until tax year 2016. (Items that may impact you are: deduction for state and local sales taxes, above the line deduction for teacher classroom expenses ($250), above the line deduction for qualified tuition and related expenses, discharge of indebtedness on principal residence excluded from gross income.) The estimated fiscal impact of these changes in total is minimal compared to Section 179.

2. No section 179 expensing for tax year 2015 now or into the future, and

3. No bonus depreciation for now or into the future.

The newsletter also provides some detail of the fiscal impact of coupling:

Estimates project just coupling with Section 179 for one year is an approximate $90 million decrease in FY 2016 budget and a revenue increase in FY 2017 estimated roughly to be more than $20 million

This is a lot of money, but it’s a lot less than the $277.3 million the Governor proposes to spend next year on targeted tax credits. While Section 179 benefits business in every county regardless of whether they hire lobbyists or consultants, the targeted tax credits go to big taxpayers and insiders who know how to work the system. We’ll see which constituency is more important to the General Assembly.

Today is the Iowa Society of CPA’s “Day on the hill.” I will be there pushing for coupling. I will confirm the no-coupling-for 2015 report. I also hope to find out whether Senate Democrats have any interest in Section 179 coupling. The Republican House is expected to pass a bill (HSB 535) with Section 179 coupling (Update, 9:44 am: Full 2015 coupling (except bonus depreciation) passed in the House this morning, 82-14).

Related: Eye on the Legislature 2016.

 

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It’s an awful idea to “borrow” payroll taxes. Iowa Businessmen Indicted for Failing to Pay Employment Taxes (Department of Justice Press Release):

Randy Less, 48, of Hopkinton, Iowa, and Darrell Smith, 59, of Forest City, Iowa, are each charged with multiple counts of willfully failing to truthfully account for, and pay over federal income, social security and Medicare taxes that were withheld from the wages of the employees of Permeate Refining Inc., which was in the business of ethanol production.

According to the allegations in the indictment, Less was the majority owner, a general partner and the general manager of Permeate Refining Inc. in Hopkinton.  In those roles, Less had the responsibility to collect, truthfully account for and pay over to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) federal income, social security and Medicare taxes withheld from the wages of his employees.  From approximately the fourth quarter of 2009 and continuing through the fourth quarter of 2010, Less is alleged to have willfully failed to pay over to the IRS more than $116,000 in withheld taxes.

The indictment further alleges that a company called Algae Energae purchased an ownership interest in Permeate in September 2009.  After that purchase, it is alleged that Smith, a corporate officer and manager of Algae Energae, also had the responsibility to collect, truthfully account for and pay over to the IRS taxes withheld from the wages of Permeate’s employees.  From approximately the first quarter of 2011 and continuing through the third quarter of 2012, both Less and Smith are alleged to have willfully failed to pay over to the IRS more than $307,000 in withheld taxes.

The IRS has resorted increasingly to criminal charges when payroll taxes go unpaid for a long time. While the defendants in this case are presumed innocent unless and until the IRS proves its case in court, the indictment reminds us that failing to remit payroll taxes is serious business. If you find yourself having to choose who to pay, remember that only the tax man has badges and guns, and that their liability doesn’t go away in bankruptcy.

 

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Robert D. Flach, WHO MUST FILE A 2015 TAX RETURN

TaxGrrrl, ‘Bug’ Exposes Uber Driver’s Tax Info, Including Name and Social Security Number

Kay Bell, Uber oops: driver’s tax info exposed on ride share site

Jack Townsend, More on the U.S. as the World’s Tax Haven

 

David Brunori, Most People Lose When Pols Pick Winners and Losers (Tax Analysts Blog). “Tax systems should have as little impact on economic decision-making as possible.”

TaxProf, The IRS Scandal, Day 994

Alan Cole, New CBO Report Shows Declining Share of C Corporations (Tax Policy Blog):

entity filings chart

Some businesses (but not all businesses, just those with a disfavored legal structure) pay a 35% rate at the entity level, followed by taxes of up to 23.8% at the shareholder level. Others, like partnerships and sole proprietorships, have taxes paid by their owners commensurate with their owners’ income in a single layer of taxation. Of course nobody wants to be a C corporation.

And yet certain politicians tell us that we just need to continue the beatings until corporate morale improves.

Renu Zaretsky, When Sharing is Caring… or Scary. Today’s TaxVox roundup covers candidate tax plans, Google and Facebook taxes, and more.

News from the Profession. I Am a Millennial Accountant, and I Hate Accounting (Chris Hooper, Going Concern)

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Tax Roundup, 1/14/16: Branstad budget omits $500,000 Section 179 deduction for Iowa; no 2015 conformity.

Thursday, January 14th, 2016 by Joe Kristan

IMG_1291Priorities. Governor Branstad yesterday told a business group that he is leaving Section 179 conformity out of the new Iowa state budget. That means Iowans will be unable to claim the $500,000 maximum Section 179 deduction for 2015 returns, assuming the legislature doesn’t override this.

The Governor dropped this little bomb after touting a new $15 million incentive tax credit for “bio-renewable chemical production” to members of the Iowa Association of Business and Industry. He said the new credit will be “revenue neutral,” taking its funding from existing incentive credit programs. (Note: I was there, so this is all firsthand). He said that there just isn’t room for it in the budget.

The Governor has inadvertently highlighted the priorities of a tax policy dedicated to directing economic activity using tax credits. My my count, the Governor budgets $277.3 million in fiscal year 2017 to steer economic activity towards favored activities via tax credits:

Iowa credits fy 2017

Presumably the new bio-renewables credit is buried in here somewhere.

By definition, these credits go to a few lucky taxpayers. The largest one, the refundable research credit, goes overwhelmingly to a few big companies — and mostly as cash grants. The Department of Revenue’s calendar 2014 research credit report showed that $42.1 million of the $56.9 million in credits claimed went to 16 taxpayers. About 2/3 of the 2014 credits were “refunds,” meaning that the credit exceeded the taxpayer’s liability for the year, so the state issued a check for the difference.

20120906-1The Section 179 deduction, by contrast, is available to any non-rental business that buys fixed assets and has taxable income. It requires no negotiation with the Department of Economic Development. It’s available regardless of whether your business is bio-chemical, renewable fuels, or whatever else is the economic development flavor of the month. It’s simple to administer – you just use the number you claim on your federal return. But it has one dreadful flaw: it provides no opportunities for politicians to issue press releases or attend ribbon cuttings.

While I don’t have exact numbers for the tax revenue cost to the state for FY 2017, the Legislative Service Bureau estimated an $88.5 million revenue loss in fiscal year 2015 from the last Section 179 conformity bill.

Of course, all Section 179 revenue losses are a matter of timing. By denying Section 179 deductions, the state has a revenue gain in the first year of the asset’s life, but gives it all back through depreciation over the rest of the asset life. By contrast, tax credits are forever. They never turn around.

There is so much disheartening about this development. Failure to conform on the $500,000 Section 179 limit — after doing so for a number of years — suddenly increases the Iowa tax for thousands of Iowans who purchased equipment in 2015. Because Congress made the Section 179 deduction permanent, it signals that Iowa will permanently de-couple and use its own computation — an inherently bad policy. It requires Iowans to maintain a separate Iowa fixed asset schedule for assets that would otherwise have been written off. And, if the legislature tries to reverse the Governor’s decision, it leaves Iowans uncertain of their 2015 tax law until well into the filing season.

But perhaps most disheartening is the stark way that it shows how Iowa’s tax system, with its high rates and special favors for the well-connected, mistreats the regular taxpayers who are just going about their business, hiring people, and paying their taxes. Lots of taxes.

Related: Hide the spoons, hold your wallets. The General Assembly is back.

 

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Robert D. Flach reports that a certain national tax prep outfit has A NEW GIMMICK.

Robert Wood, Powerball Losers Make Lemonade By Selling Losing Lottery Tickets

Paul Neiffer, Planted Vines and Trees Qualify for Bonus Depreciation

Kay Bell, Final 2015 estimated tax payment is due Friday, Jan. 15

 

TaxProf, The IRS Scandal, Day 980

Cara Griffith, Waiting on the Court to Figure Out How to Tax Remote Sales (Tax Analysts Blog)

Jared Walczak, What Percentage of Lottery Winnings Would Be Withheld in Your State?

Howard Gleckman, Clinton and Sanders Face Off Over Who Should Pay for New Social Programs (TaxVox).

 

Career Corner. An Introvert’s Guide to Surviving Team Lunches (Leona May, Going Concern)

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Tax Roundup, 6/29/15: Congratulations, newlyweds, here’s your tax bill! And windy subsidies, IRS stonewalling, more.

Monday, June 29th, 2015 by Joe Kristan

Welcome to the marriage penalty. The Supreme Court has spread Iowa marriage law nationwide. That means more same-sex couples will tie the knot and learn about the sometimes surprising tax results of matrimony. In general, if only one member of the couple has income, it’s a good tax deal, but not so much for two-earner couples. The weird complexity of the tax law means there are lots of exceptions.

The Tax Foundation has an excellent summary of these issues, Understanding the Marriage Penalty and Marriage Bonus. It includes this wonderful piece of abstract art illustrating how marriage can help and hurt a couple’s federal income tax liability:

Marriage penalty tax foundation chart

 

The chart has two axes: the percentage of income earned by each spouse, and the income level. Blue is good, red is bad. If combined income is just short of $100,00, it’s all good, but there is lots of room for tax pain at the top and bottom of the income spectrum for married couples.

Other coverage:

Jason Dinesen, Tax Implications of Friday’s Ruling on Same-Sex Marriage:

This ruling should not have an impact on federal tax returns because couples in same-gender marriages have been able to file as married on their federal tax returns since 2013. This ruling affects state tax returns in states that had bans against same-gender marriage.

Jason, an Iowa enrolled agent, was an early expert in same-sex marriage compliance.

 

TaxProf Blog Op-Ed By David Herzig: The Tax Implications Of Today’s Supreme Court Same-Sex Marriage Decision (TaxProf) “Same-sex couples will now be able to inherit, file joint state tax returns, possess hospital visitation rights and all other state marriage rights as heterosexual married couples.”

Kay Bell, Marriage equality means tweaks to tax code, tax forms. “Sen. Ron Wyden (D-Ore.), the ranking minority member on the Senate Finance Committee, is already working on getting the new nomenclature on the books.”

TaxGrrrl, SCOTUS Legalizes Same Sex Marriage But Questions Remain For Religious Groups & Tax Exempts

 

Wind turbineWindy Subsidy Signed. Governor Branstad has signed HF 645, which establishes a tax credit for wind energy. The credit is 50% of the similar federal credit, up to $5,000. It takes effect retroactively to 2014, giving a windfall to people who bought qualifying systems already. It will do nothing for the environment, but it will do wonders for companies selling wind energy systems.

 

 

 

Christopher Bergin, Why We Just Sued the IRS – Again (Tax Analysts Blog):

For more than two years the IRS has played its old game of hide the ball regarding requests to release Lois Lerner’s e-mails — e-mails that would teach us a lot about what actually went on during the exempt organization scandal. Many of those requests came from the United States Congress: the elected officials who control the IRS budget. The IRS’s stalling tactics have run the gamut from eye-rollingly comical to downright disturbing.

Through this and and other worrisome developments, one thing is clear: the IRS is now in desperate trouble. Most of that trouble it created itself. It would be unfair to call them the gang that couldn’t shoot straight, because when it comes to shooting itself in the foot the IRS is an expert marksman. The IRS is an agency whose initial reaction to almost anything is secrecy.

The IRS needs a big culture change, one starting with a new Commissioner.

 

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Associated Press, Ex-Rep. Mel Reynolds indicted on tax charges. Can you believe a Chicago politician who would sleep with a 16-year old campaign worker would also cheat on his taxes?

 

Russ Fox, A Peabody, Massachusetts Tax Preparer Gives an Unwitting Endorsement for EFTPS:

Mr. Ginsberg operated a traditional payroll service. It’s fairly easy to check on your payroll company if you use such a service: Enroll in EFTPS. Using EFTPS you can verify that your payroll company is making the payroll deposits they say they are. That’s a good idea–trust but verify. The DOJ Press release notes:

To cover up his scheme, Ginsberg falsified his clients’ tax returns, which he was hired to prepare, indicating that the clients’ payroll taxes had been paid in full, when they had not. When asked by clients about their mysterious IRS debts, Ginsberg gave them a litany of false excuses, including blaming the IRS and his own staff.

None of those excuses work hold up with EFTPS. Today, payroll tax deposits with the IRS are all made electronically. Is it possible for one to get messed up? Yes, but it’s very unlikely. Indeed, most payroll companies just make sure the deposits are made from your payroll bank account.

If you outsource your payroll tax, insource regular visits to EFTPS to make sure your payments are made.

 

Peter Reilly, SpongeBob SquarePants In A Tax Case!

Tony Nitti, Sloppy Drafting Saves Obamacare – Supreme Court Upholds Tax Subsidies For All. I think it was more sloppy judging than sloppy drafting that did the trick.

Keith Fogg, Aging Offers in Compromise into Acceptance (Procedurally Taxing).

Jack Townsend, Rand Paul and Expatriates to Sue IRS and Treasury Over FBAR and FATCA. They want both to be declared unconstitutional. Unfortunately, it seems like a anything the IRS wants is constitutional anymore.

TaxProf, The IRS Scandal, Day 779Day 780Day 781. Still trying to shake out the “lost” emails after 781 days. You’d think they were stalling or something. And efforts to impeach Commissioner Koskinen. It’s not going to happen, but if he had any shame, he would have resigned long ago.

Richard Auxier, Michigan, out of ideas, might ask poor to pick up transportation tab (TaxVox).

 

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Quotable:

The pledge, the brainchild of Grover Norquist, president of Americans for Tax Reform, is a terrible idea for several reasons. First, no leader should promise never to raise taxes because, frankly, there are times when it is necessary. Over 50 Kansas legislators and Brownback, who have signed the pledge, found that out last week. I agree with Norquist philosophically; less government is good. But the pledge only leads to more debt at the federal level and gimmicks in state governments.

David Brunori, Tax Analysts ($link)

 

Career Corner. EY Employee Has Eaten So Many Hours, He’s Gone on Hunger Strike (Caleb Newquist, Going Concern).

 

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Tax Roundup, 4/28/15: Iowa flunks another business tax study. And: on to Belfast and Edinburgh.

Tuesday, April 28th, 2015 by Joe Kristan

20121226-1Programming note. I will be riding the magic flying chair across the ocean tomorrow on my way to the TIAG Spring Conference in Edinburgh, U.K. It will be the first conference since Roth & Company became a member of the TIAG worldwide alliance of independent accounting firms, and I am excited to meet representatives of our sister firms from Canada, China, the U.K. and elsewhere.

I will first stop off in Belfast to attempt to extend the family tree by a branch or two, and to do some sightseeing in County Tyrone, where my mom’s ancestors lived before heading to Ontario, and then to Illinois, in the mid 19th century. Any tips for using the facilities of the Public Records Office of Northern Ireland are welcome and appreciated.

With the travel, posting here will be variable based on time, internet connections, computer functionality, and jet lag. But there will be posts, and there will be pictures, so stop by. Full posting should resume May 8 or so.

 

20130117-1Iowa does it again! Our fair land between the rivers shows up near the bottom of another survey of state business tax systems — this time in 45th place in the Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council Best to Worst State Tax Systems for Entrepreneurship and Small Business. Iowa scores especially poorly for its high corporation tax rate and corporate capital gain rates.

Worse, neighboring South Dakota ranks #1. They have no corporation income tax at all. Repeal of the corporation income tax is a key part of the Tax Update’s Quick and Dirty Iowa Tax Reform Plan. Right now Iowa relies on the highest corporation tax rate in the country, along with 31 (and counting) special interest tax credits, to grow businesses. I think South Dakota’s idea makes more sense.

Related: What an Iowa income tax might look like with a fresh start.

Liz Malm, North Dakota Cuts Income Taxes Again (Tax Policy Blog). They were 15th on the SBE survey before this.

 

Meanwhile, Iowa’s General Assembly ponders a sales tax increase, reports the Des Moines Register:

A late-session bid to raise Iowa’s sales tax by three-eighths of 1 percent to generate $150 million annually for natural resources and outdoor recreation programs has gained some traction in the Iowa Legislature, but it remains a long shot.

Cash is fungible, and like highway “trust fund” dollars, the politicians will divert “targeted” revenues to their pet projects sooner or later.

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Roger McEowen, It Ain’t Over Until the FBAR Report is Filed (ISU-Calt Ag Docket): “You trigger a filing requirement whenever you have a an interest in or signatory authority over a foreign financial account with a value over $10,000 at any time during the calendar year.”

William Perez, How to Get Your Tax Withholding Just Right

Kay Bell, Wrong tax refund amount? What now?

Andrew Mitchel, Recognition of Losses on Dispositions of PFICs

 

20140826-1The Buzz is Back! The Wandering Tax Pro, Robert D. Flach, comes back from another tax season with a fresh roundup of tax blog posts presented with his hand-crafted perspective.

‘Moose’ declined comment. ‘Squirrel’ Threatens To Bomb IRS Building (TaxGrrrl)

Robert Wood, Ten Facts About Fighting IRS Tax Bills.

Peter Reilly, Is IRS Targeting Drunkards? Well, somebody has to work there.

Jack Townsend, The Stored Communications Act and Emails: An Overview

 

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TaxProf, The IRS Scandal, Day 719 “IRS Attacks Conservative Groups But Silent on Clinton Foundation.” And Media Matters, and…

Howard Gleckman, A Small But Important Change in Retirement Savings Rules (TaxVox). “The proposal would exempt those who have $100,000 or less in retirement savings from having to take required taxable distributions from 401(k)s, IRAs, and the like starting at age 70 ½.”

 

Government is just the name for things we do together. IRS Seeks To Tax $50k Raised From GoFundMe For Cancer Treatment For Car Crash Victim (TaxProf).

 

 

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Tax Roundup, 3/31/15: Stopping travelers in Iowa for fun and profit. And: more tax credits!

Tuesday, March 31st, 2015 by Joe Kristan

20120703-2Highwaymen with badges. The Des Moines Register is running an excellent series describing the worst public finance innovation in recent decades — civil asset forfeiture. That’s a fancy name for police stealing money from travelers and using the proceeds to fund their own operations, on mere suspicion of wrongdoing by the travelers. The victims have to sue to get it back, and they have to prove they aren’t criminals — turning the normal burdens of proof upside down. That’s expensive and difficult. The result is a terribly-designed tax on the unlucky and the intimidated.

This creates a horrible incentive system. Police can always gin up an excuse to confiscate some traveler’s cash to buy new toys (“scented candles, mulch and tropical fish“) for the department. They then send the travelers on their way, a dead giveaway that they aren’t really fighting crime. Most travelers will be intimidated and drive away without fighting. Even if the traveler wins, nobody is punished for the unjustified seizure.

Today’s installment also shows how this system leads to corruption:

Former Dallas County Sheriff Brian Gilbert was convicted of felony theft for taking $120,000 in cash seized during a 2006 traffic stop.

More recently, Altoona resident Vicki Wharton’s car and some of her money was seized in 2012 by Polk County deputies working with the Mid Iowa Narcotics Enforcement team in a case involving her son.

She fought the forfeiture and managed to get both her car and most of her cash back — minus a few hundred dollars that seemingly disappeared.

Some people assume that anybody traveling with large amounts of cash is up to no good, but there are plenty of horror stories of travelers losing their life savings to thieves with badges to show otherwise. Other cases involve seizure of homes or businesses because, for example, a son was arrested for drug use or a customer used a hotel room for a crime.

While asset forfeiture is likely to be more catastrophic for the victim, it is kindred to highway speed cameras as a corrupt use of law enforcement powers for revenue. It is an inherently unethical, unjust, and third-world way to raise revenue. If you aren’t willing to fund your local Sheriff with property taxes, you shouldn’t ask him to fund himself from passers-by.

Other stories in the Des Moines Register series:

Iowa forfeiture: Forfeiture spending questioned in Iowa, elsewhere

Iowa forfeiture: A ‘system of legal thievery?

 

20120906-1Des Moines Register, Branstad: Iowa ‘blessed’ to have Hy-Vee; defends tax credits.

Gov. Terry Branstad is defending the state’s decision to award $7.5 million in state tax credits to Hy-Vee Inc. at the same time one of the grocery company’s chief competitors in the Des Moines market has closed its doors because of bankruptcy.

I shop at Hy-Vee, and I like them just fine. Still, they are a 100% ESOP-owned, presumably through an S corporation, meaning they pay no income taxes. Do they need tax credits, too? Their competitor Dahl’s won’t get this credit — they died. Iowa-based Fareway isn’t getting this sweet subsidy — let alone Price Chopper, Aldi, IGA, Super-Valu, Target, Trader Joe’s, Whole Foods…

 

William Perez, How to Get a Federal Tax Credit for the Cost of Child Care

TaxGrrrl, As Tax Day Nears, Don’t Panic: File For Extension. Far better to extend than to amend.

Robert Wood, Ten Things You Should Know About IRS Form 1099. “Before you file taxes, collect all your IRS Forms 1099 and pay attention to each one. The IRS sure does.”

Peter Reilly, Exelon Subsidiary Denied Tax Breaks On Three Mile Island Purchase.

Jack Townsend, Swiss Bank Enablers Get Unsupervised Probation and Relatively Light Fines. We need to shoot the jaywalkers so we can wrist-slap the real criminals.

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Kay Bell, It’s clear that all tax exempt categories need to be re-evaluated. Scientology is today’s topic.

Clint Stretch, Who Should Pay for the Mess We’re In? (Tax Analysts Blog)

Renu Zaretsky, Just the Facts, Ma’am: On Filing and Reform. Today’s TaxVox headline roundup covers whether the Rubio-Lee tax plan includes refundable personal credits and the trade-offs of public pension reform.

TaxProf, The IRS Scandal, Day 691. He links to Robert Wood discussing the reflexive strategy of obstruction and lies that has become standard operating procedure in the executive branch.

 

And: Tomorrow we start our run to the end of filing season with our 2015 filing season tax tips. Collect one, collect them all!

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Tax Roundup, 2/13/15: Gas tax advances, tax system declines.

Friday, February 13th, 2015 by Joe Kristan

Accounting Today visitors: click here for the post on the updated auto depreciation limits.

 

IMG_1284It looks more likely that I was wrong in predicting no gas tax increase. Subcommittees in both the House and Senate Ways and Means committees approved a 10-cent per gallon increase this week, advancing the increase to the full committes. KCRG.com reports:

A group of top lawmakers from both parties and Gov. Terry Branstad have proposed the 10-cent gas tax increase, which is expected to generate more than $200 million annually.

Supporters say the gas tax is the most fair and equitable way to generate funds for road construction.

At least it looks like my backup bet — that a gas tax increase would indicate that Governor Branstad won’t run for another term — is looking better.

 

taxanalystslogoChristopher Bergin, Reform What? (Tax Analysts Blog). It has a great teaser line: “Yes, it sure is fun thinking about tax reform. And doing nothing about it could be fun as well. We might get to watch this colossal structure collapse soon.”

Christopher goes on to explain:

But all this talk has me thinking about other things, too. Which tax system will we reform – or at least start with? Should it be the one most of us are struggling to comply with -– the one that about half of us “regular” taxpayers still have to pay taxes under? You know, the one with deductions for charitable contributions that we’d make anyway — the one that discriminates between people who own a house and rent a house. The one that’s so confusing, many of us just turn our taxes over to a paid preparer or a paid-for program to figure out. Let’s not forget that if you’re doing well under this tax system, you win a prize: the alternative minimum tax (which is sort of a booby prize).

Or maybe we should start by reforming the IRS, which has become so broke and inept that it can’t afford to help your grandmother find the line on her Form 1040 for the dependents she can no longer claim. That’s the agency that is also supposed to enforce the law so that none of us “regular” taxpayers are the true suckers in all this. (How’s that working out for you?)

Lots of that sort of cheerful stuff. In some ways the system is already collapsing before our eyes. A system that wires $21 billion annually to thieves — and it’s getting worse quickly — isn’t built to last.

 

Des Moines Register, 16 companies claim 82 percent of Iowa’s R&D tax credits. “In all, 265 companies claimed about $51 million in credits for research and development last year, the report shows. Of that, 16 companies claimed $42.1 million.”

My coverage of the story from yesterday is here: The Federal $21 billion thief subsidy; the Iowa $37 million corporation subsidy.

 

William Perez, If You Drive for Uber, Lyft or Sidecar, These Tax Tips are Just for You

20150105-2Kay Bell, IRS drops some features in latest app upgrade

Jim Maule, Self-Employment Income Not Offset by NOL Carryforward

Carl Smith, The Eight Circuit Gives Both Sides a Hard Time on What is a “Separate Return” for Section 6013(b) Purposes (Procedurally Taxing). ” Does the limit on changing from a “separate return” to an MFJ return after filing a Tax Court petition only apply where a taxpayer initially filed an MFS return (as the taxpayer argues), or does it also apply where a taxpayer initially filed a “single” or HOH return (as the government argues)?”

Robert Wood, Nine Habits of Exceptionally Tax-Averse People. Numbers 5 and 6 are key.

TaxGrrrl, Are You Insured? Obamacare Deadline Quickly Approaching

Tony Nitti, Republicans, Democrats Agree On Tax Issue; Winter Storm Warning Issued For Hell. Tony, gang truces are more common than you’d think.

Jack Townsend, Structuring 20150119-1Forfeitures Again in the News (my emphasis):

After taking considerable heat on which we reported before, the IRS has hunkered back to a policy that generally (that’s a fuzz word) will allow seizure only where the IRS has proof of illegal income.  So, under the new law, generally the innocents (meaning those without illegal income) can intentionally violate the structuring law without being subject forfeiture and presumably without being subject to structuring prosecution. It seems to me that Congress should change the law rather than have the IRS not enforce the law as Congress wrote it or to signal to citizens that they can violate the law with impunity so long as they do use illegal funds.

I think Jack gives too much credit to the IRS, as if they have only been taking money when there was “intentional” structuring. The news reports have shown there are plenty of reasons to make deposits before you have $10,000 on hand, including insurance policy restrictions and the common sense idea that you don’t leave too much cash sitting around. But IRS didn’t inquire as to whether there was any actual intent to keep deposits low; they just took the money.

While the IRS has plenty to answer for in its seizure policy, I agree that Congress is just as guilty, passing laws allowing asset seizures without barely a nod at due process and without a hearing.

 

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TaxProf, The IRS Scandal, Day 645

Amber Erickson of Tax Justice Blog boldly makes The Case for Keeping the Medical Device Tax,

Health insurance providers, pharmaceutical companies, and the medical device industry are all expected to gain from the ACA by earning greater profits as more people enter the healthcare marketplace. The tax is intended to reciprocate those benefits by tacking on a small flat rate to a firm’s revenue.

But that tax is only on the medical deveisces, not “health insurance providers,” the big winner, and not on pharmaceuticals. It really isn’t on the device industry; it is on the people who need them.

 

Eric Cedarwell, Senator Bernie Sanders’s New Deal for America (Tax Policy Blog).

 Inspired by Roosevelt’s New Deal in many regards, Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) recently outlined his vision for America, featuring expansionary government spending policies. A major federal jobs program, a hike in the minimum wage to at least $15, expansion of Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, increased regulation of Wall Street, and protectionist trade policies are examples of initiatives Sanders emphasized. However, Sen. Sanders provided little information on how he might finance his vision.

In other words, a reprise of the policies that put the “great” in the Great Depression.

Howard Gleckman, Lawmakers Talk Tax Reform But Keep Pushing New Tax Subsidies (TaxVox). Of course they do.

 

Caleb Newquist, When Is the Right Time to Start Your Own Accounting Firm? (Going Concern). December 19, 1990 worked for us. I think it was about 8:30 am.

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